Recent Lectures on Laboratory Magnetospheres
- "Discovery Fusion Energy Science using a Superconducting Laboratory Magnetosphere," presented at the Workshop on Exploratory Topics in Plasma and Fusion Research (EPR) held at the University of Wisconsin-Madison August 5-8, 2014. The Wednesday session is dedicated to Tom Intrator, who was an early pioneer in the use of radio waves to heat and drive currents in the Phaedrus-B tandem mirror experiment and the Phaedrus-T tokamak.
The application of high-power radio wave heating of LDX is an exciting opportunity.
- "Exploring Plasma Dynamics with Laboratory Magnetospheres," University of Michigan (MIPSE) Feb 2014. Wonderful visit (with flattering flyier). UMich has a tremendous plasma science and engineering program, with diverse programs. Space sciences program at UMich is terrific. I even got a coffee cup from James Slavin (Chair of AOSS).
- "Fusion Turbulence without a Toroidal Field," (Nov 2013). Three decades since Surko and Slusher, fusion scientists have achieved tremendous progress understanding driven turbulence and turbulent transport in tokamaks. Nonlinear gyrokinetic theory provides a workable formalism for simulating gradient-driven turbulent transport, and recent validation studies in high-power reactor-relevant regimes show important areas of agreement. The new application of nonlinear gryokinetic theory to toroidal magnetic confinement without a toroidal magnetic field is an important opportunity to extend the reach of turbulence models used for magnetic fusion to different geometries, to higher beta plasmas, and to plasma confined in magnetospheres. Magnetic geometry strongly influences turbulent mixing, and low-frequency fluctuations are enturely field-aligned for a toroidal plasma confinement by a purely poloidal field. Fusion turbulence without a toroidal field eliminates coupling between parallel streaming and perpendicular decorrelation, drives either a particle pinch or a thermal pinch, and exhibits 2D dynamics and the inverse energy cascade.
- "Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres," (June 2013). Laboratory magnetospheres are facilities to develop and test integrated models of space weather in relevant magnetic geometry. This presentation presents examples of controlled experiments using laboratory magnetospheres (like the production of "artificial radiation belts", the quantitative verification of magnetospheric transport models, and the understanding of turbulent mixing.) New experiments designed to increase plasma density and study Alfvénic dynamics using impulsive and coherent MHD spectroscopy are presented.
- "Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres," (June 27, 2013). "Artificial radiation belts" have been studied in laboratory magnetospheres, but they have also been produced following high altitude nuclear explosions. For example, the Starfish Prime explosion in July 1962 disabled one-third of all low Earth orbiting satellites. In this lecture, laboratory magnetospheres are shown to be useful for testing integrated models of space-weather dynamics. We present the first observations of "exploding pellets" injected into an artificial radiation belt in the laboratory.
- "Turbulent Pinch, Laboratory Magnetospheres, and the Economic Viability of Fusion",
Lecture to PPPL Theory Group (May 9, 2013)
- "Inward Turbulent Diffusion of Plasma in a Levitated Dipole",
Slides from lecture presented at PPPL. (March, 2010)
- "Inward Turbulent Diffusion of Plasma in a Levitated Dipole",
Slides from lectures presented at the University of Wisconsin and the University of New Hampshire. (November, 2009)
- "Diffusion of Plasma in Magnetic Fields",
A short presentation of the observation of the inward turbulent particle pinch observed in the LDX experiment. Using a four-chord interferometer array, LDX has recorded the strongest inward pinch ever seen in the laboratory. Measurements of the edge electric field fluctuations predict the observed inward pinch. This talk puts this observation into the context of early experiments and theories (1960) of plasma transport driven by perpendicular electric fields. Thanks also to the late great Boris Kadomstev.
- "Improved Confinement During Magnetic Levitation in LDX",
(50th Anniversary Meeting of the APS-DPP, November 2008.) An overview of recent plasma confinement observation in the LDX device. Experiments have demonstrated the creation of "naturally peaked" density profiles for the first time in the laboratory.
- "Creating Artificial Radiation Belts in the Laboratory"
(Plasma Physics Colloquium, MIT, Sept, 2005. 20 MB)
A summary of three new results concerning fast-particle confinement in dipole magnetic fields in the context of our knowledge of the radiation belts that surround our planet Earth. New results include: (1) Understanding the mechanism of frequency sweeping and the existence of "phase-space holes" (Maslovsky, PRL, 2003), (2) Observation of the centrifugal interchange mode and the apparent "universal mode structure" of electrostatic interchange modes in laboratory dipoles (Levitt, PRL, 2005), and highlights of the creation of high-pressure (high-beta) plasma in the Levitated Dipole Experiment. This talk contains computer annimations of interchange mixing in a dipole and audio recordings of actual plasma instabilities. These are:
- "Electrostatic Interchange Instabilities of a Rotating, High-Temperature Plasma Confined by a Dipole Magnet: Theory and Experiment"
(IPELS, Norway, July 2005),
Summary of interchange instability measurements in the CTX device and comparisons with nonlinear 2D gyrokinetic simulations. Both the fast hot-electron interchange mode and the slow centrifugal mode are discussed. (No movies or sounds in this PDF.)
- "Making Movies at 50,000,000 Degrees" by Jeff Waksman
(Third Year Student at Columbia),
10 Minutes Showcase Presentation given at the first day-long meeting of undergraduate students describing their research projects. (April 29, 2005).
- "The Levitated Dipole Experiment for Plasma Confinement",
(XII Seminario Enzo Levi Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica, April 2005.) Introduction to the levitated dipole fusion concept, the physics of dipole magnetic confinement, and the first observations of stable, high-beta dipole confinement.
- "Fusion Energy in a Non-C02 Emitting Energy Portfolio",
(AAAS Annual Meeting, February 2005.) Fusion has the potential to provide essentially inexhaustible, non-CO2 emitting energy with low land-use costs and low nuclear materials risks. With a sustained and strong international research program, fusion development scenarios suggest several TW of fusion power could be available within the present century. This presentation will describe the scientific and technical issues facing fusion researchers in realizing the potential of fusion, highlight the recent advances and progress in fusion experiments, and overview international plans for the demonstration of fusion energy technology.
- " Experiments with a Supported Dipole",
Reporting work with the CTX experiment by B. Levitt and D. Maslovsky; 2004. This talk includes links to three movies: energetic electron flows, ion and potential dynamics with 0.2 energetic electron fraction, and ion and potential dynamics with only 0.05 hot electron fraction.
- "Observing Interchange Instabilities in a Laboratory Magnetic Dipole: Rising Bubbles and Rising Tones",
Reporting work with the CTX experiment by D. Maslovsky and B. Levitt; 2002. This talk includes links to two movies: drift/interchange motion, energetic electron dynamical simulation (BIG), and a beautiful sound file from measured frequency sweeping of interchange modes.
Recent Lectures on Advancements in Fusion Plasma Physics
My research goal is to integrate technology innovations with advancements in fusion plasma physics to engineer and test fusion confinement concepts that significantly simplify, reduce capital costs, and improve maintainability. As written by Columbia University Professor and Dean, Robert Gross, in his 1984 textbook Fusion Energy, "Fusion has proved to be a very difficult challenge. The early question was—Can fusion be done, and, if so how? ... Now, the challenge lies in whether fusion can be done in a reliable, an economical, and socially acceptable way..."
- "Discovery Research in Magnetic Fusion Energy",
or How we learn about magnetic containment and the potential to reduce the cost of fusion energy with alternate configurations. Lecture to National Undergraduate Fusion Fellows (NUF) (Princeton, June 13, 2014).
- "Turbulent Pinch, Laboratory Magnetospheres, and the Economic Viability of Fusion",
Lecture to PPPL Theory Group (May 9, 2013)
- "Introduction to Magnetic Fusion Energy",
Lecture to the 2011 National Undergraduate Fusion Fellowship recipients at PPPL (June 6, 2011)
- "Fusion Technologies for Tritium-Suppressed D-D Fusion",
White Paper prepared for FESAC Materials Science Subcommittee, December 19, 2011. The Report by the Zinkle Subcommittee on Fusion Technologies (Feb 2012) is available from DOE/FES.
- "Bringing the Stars to Earth: The Path to Fusion Power",
Slides from lecture presented at US Coast Guard Academy. (March, 2011)
- "Introduction to Magnetic Fusion Research",
An overview of magnetic fusion energy research (MFE) presented to the 2009 National Undergraduate Fusion Fellowship recipients during the short course on plasma physics given at PPPL.
- "Fusion Energy: Progress towards an Unlimited Energy Source",
(U.S. Department of State, June 2007.) An overview of fusion energy science research including a physics primer and a description of the ITER device. Bottles of ice-cold "Fusion Fuel" were provided to those attending the summertime lecture. Careful! Drinking this bottle contains the deuterium-equivalent of one barrel of oil.
- "Kalman Filters to Reduce Noise Effects during External Kink Control",
(Annual Meeting of DPP-APS, Denver, CO, October 2005.) A summary of the use of filters to reduce the effects of noise and derivative gain on
the feedback control of RWM and kink modes in both HBT-EP and DIII-D.
- "Fusion Energy: Pipe Dream or Panacea",
Lecture to the Aspen Global Change Institute, Energy Options and Paths to Climate Stabilization, July 2003. This lecture introduces fusion energy, describes scientific progress, and outlines a promising route to develop fusion as a significant carbon-free energy source. A link to a recording of the presentation: Link to Movie.
- "Why the Restructured Program Science Focus and Energy Goal is the Best Way Forward",
Presentation to the NRC Burning Plasma Assessment Committee, January 18, 2003. Reinforcing and expanding upon the recommendation, A strategically balanced fusion program, including meaningful U.S. participation in ITER and a strong domestic fusion science program, must be maintained, recognizing that this will eventually require a substantial augmentation in fusion program funding...
- "Dipole Fusion Concept and the LDX Experiment",
Reporting work of the LDX Physics and Engineering Team: Darren Garnier, Alex Hansen, Jay Kesner, Mike Mauel, Phil Michael, Joe Minervini, Alex Zhukovsky; 2002. See LDX home page for up-to-date project status.
Mauel: Selected Publications
- "In situ "artificial plasma" calibration of tokamak magnetic sensors," D. Shiraki, et al., RSI, 84, 063502 (2013).
- "Transport Induced by Large Scale Convective Structures in a Dipole-Confined Plasma," B. Grierson, PRL, 105, 205004 (2010),
- "Turbulent inward pinch of plasma confined by a levitated dipole magnet",
A. Boxer, et al., Nature-Physics, DOI:10.1038/NPHYS1510.
- "Obervation of the Dynamical Structure of Turbulence in Plasma Confined by a Dipole Magnetic Field",
B. Garnier, M. Worstell, M. E. Mauel, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008.
- "The Turbulent Structure of a Plasma Confined by a Magnetic Dipole",
B. Garnier, M. Worstell, M. E. Mauel, submitted to J. Fusion Energy, 2008.
- "Stabilization of a low-frequency instability in a dipole plasma",
D. T. Garnier, A. Boxer, J. Ellsworth, A.K. Hansen, I. Karim, J. Kesner, M. Mauel, E. Ortiz, A. Roach, J. Plasma Phys., 2008.
- "Feedback suppression of rotating external kink instabilities in the presence of noise",
J. Hanson, B. De Bono, R. James, J. Levesque, M. E. Mauel, D. Maurer, G. Navratil, T. Pedersen, D. Shiraki, Phys. Plasmas, 2008.
- "Production and Study of High-Beta Plasma Confined by a Superconducting Dipole Magnet",
D. T. Garnier, A. Hansen, M. E. Mauel, E. Ortiz, A. Boxer, J. Ellsworth, I. Karim, J. Kesner, S. Mahar, A. Roach, Phys. Plasmas, 2006.
- "Stable High Beta Plasmas Confined by a Dipole Magnetic Field",
D. T. Garnier, A. Hansen, M. E. Mauel, E. Ortiz, A. Boxer, J. Ellsworth, I. Karim, J. Kesner, S. Mahar, A. Roach, Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., 2005.
- "Dynaamics and control of resistive wall modes with magnetic feedback control coils: experiment and theory",
M. E. Mauel, J. Bialek, A. H. Boozer, C. Cates, R. James, O. Katsuro-Hopkins, A. Klein, Y. Liu, D. Maurer, D. Maslovsky, G. Navratil, T. Pedersen, M. Shilov, and N. Stillitis, Phys. Plasmas, 2005.
- "Observation of Centrifugally Driven Interchange Instabilities in a Plasma Confined by a Magnetic Dipole",
B. Levitt, D. Maslovsky, M. Mauel, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2005.
- "Suppression of rotating external kink instabilities using optimized mode control feedback",
A. Klein, D. Maurer, T. Pedersen, M. Mauel, G. Navratil, C. Cates, M. Shilov, Y. Liu, N. Stillitis, and J. Bialek Phys. Plasmas, 2005.
- "Dynamical plasma response of resistive wall modes to changing external magnetic perturbations",
M. Shilov, C. Cates, R. James, et al., Phys. Plasmas, 2004.
- "Helium Catalyzed D-D Fusion in a Levitated Dipole",
J. Kesner, D. Garnier, A. Hansen, M. Mauel, L. Bromberg, Nuc. Fusion, 2004.
- "Suppression of nonlinear frequency sweeping of resonant interchange modes in a magnetic dipole with applied radio frequency fields",
D. Maslovsky, B. Levitt, M. E. Mauel, Phys. Plasmas, 2003.
- "Observation of nonliner frequency sweeping suppression with RF diffusion",
D. Maslovsky, B. Levitt, M. E. Mauel, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2003.
- "Numerical Simulation of Phase-Space Flows in the Collisionless Terrella Experiment",
D. Maslovsky, M. E. Mauel, B. Levitt, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2002.
- "Measurement of the Global Structure of Interchange Modes Driven by Energetic Electrons Trapped in a Magnetic Dipole",
B. Levitt, D. Maslovsky, and M. E. Mauel, Phys. Plasmas, 2002.
- "Effect of magnetic islands on the local plasma behavior in a tokamak experiment".
E. D. Taylor, C. Cates, M. E. Mauel, D. A. Maurer, D. Nadle, G. A. Navratil, M. Shilov, Phys. Plasmas, 2002.
- "Modeling of active control of external magnetohydrodynamic instabilities",
James Bialek, Allen H. Boozer, M. E. Mauel, G. A. Navratil, Phys. Plasmas, 2001.
- "Suppression of resistive wall instabilities with distributed, independently controlled, active feedback coils",
C. Cates, M. Shilov, M. E. Mauel, G. A. Navratil, D. Maurer, S. Mukherjee, D. Nadle, J. Bialek, A. Boozer, Phys. Plasmas, 2000.
- "Dipole equilibrium and stability",
J. Kesner, A.N. Simakov, D.T. Garnier, P.J. Catto, R.J. Hastie, S.I. Krasheninnikov, M.E. Mauel, T. Sunn Pedersen, J.J. Ramos, Nuc. Fusion, 2001.
- "The feedback phase instability in the HBT-EP tokamak"
D.L. Nadle, C. Cates, H. Dahi, M.E. Mauel, D.A. Maurer, S. Mukherjee, G.A. Navratil, M. Shilov, E.D. Taylor, Nuclear Fusion, 2000.
- "Magnetohydrodynamic stability in a levitated dipole"
D. T. Garnier, J. Kesner, M. E. Mauel, Phys. Plasmas, 1999.
- "Nonstationary signal analysis of magnetic islands in plasmas".
E. D. Taylor, C. Cates, M. E. Mauel, D. A. Maurer, D. Nadle, G. A. Navratil, M. Shilov, Rev. Sci. Instruments, 1999.
- "Active control of 2/1 magnetic islands in a tokamak"
G. A. Navratil, C. Cates, M. E. Mauel, D. Maurer, D. Nadle, E. Taylor, Q. Xiao, W. A. Reass, G. A. Wurden, Phys. Plasmas, 1998.
- "Stabilization of kink instabilities by eddy currents in a segmented wall and comparison with ideal MHD theory", A. M. Garofalo, E. Eisner, T. H. Ivers, R. Kombargi, M. E. Mauel, D. Maurer, D. Nadle, G. A. Navratil, M. K. Vijaya Sankar, E. Taylor, Q. Xiao, Nuc. Fusion, 1998.
- "Laboratory observations of wave-induced radial transport within an "artificial radiation belt", M. Mauel, Journal de Physique IV (Colloque), vol.7, no.C4, 1997.
- "Observation of wave-induced chaotic radial transport in a laboratory terrella experiment",
H. P. Warren, M. E. Mauel, D. Brennan, S. Taromina, Phy. Plasmas, 1996.
- "Demonstration of high-performance negative central magnetic shear discharges in the DIII-D tokamak",
B. W. Rice, K. H. Burrell, L. L. Lao, G. Navratil, B. W. Stallard, E. J. Strait, T. S. Taylor, M. E. Austin, T. A. Casper, M. S. Chu, C. B. Forest, P. Gohil, R. J. Groebner, W. W. Heidbrink, A. W. Hyatt, H. Ikezi, R. J. La Haye, E. A. Lazarus, Y. R. Lin-Liu, M. E. Mauel, W. H. Meyer, C. L. Rettig, D. P. Schissel, H. E. St. John, P. L. Taylor, A. D. Turnbull, and the DIII-D Team, Phys. Plasmas, 1996.
- "Wave-induced chaotic radial transport of energetic electrons in a laboratory terrella experiment",
H. P. Warren and M. E. Mauel, Phys. Plasmas, 1995.
- "Enhanced Confinement and Stability in DIII-D Discharges with Reversed Magnetic Shear,"
E. J. Strait, L. L. Lao, M. E. Mauel, B. W. Rice, T. S. Taylor, K. H. Burrell, M. S. Chu, E. A. Lazarus, T. H. Osborne, S. J. Thompson, and A. D. Turnbull, Phys. Rev. Lett. 1995.
- "Effect of Toroidal Plasma Flow and Flow Shear on Global MHD Modes",
M. S. Chu, J. M. Greene, T. H. Jensen, R. L. Miller, A. Bondeson, R. Johnson, M. E. Mauel, Phys. of Plasmas 1995.
- "Observation of Chaotic Particle Transport Induced by Drift-Resonant Fluctuations in a Magnetic Dipole Field,"
H. P. Warren and M. E. Mauel, Phys. Rev. Letters 1995.
- "Wall Stabilization of High Beta Plasmas in DIII-D",
T. S. Taylor, E. J. Strait, L. L. Lao, M. E. Mauel, A. D. Turnbull, K. H. Burrell, M. S. Chu, J. Ferron, R. H. Groebner, R. J. La Haye, T. H. Jensen, D. J. Lightly, R. L. Miller, B. W. Rice, R. T. Snider, S. J. Thompson, and D. Wróblewski, Phys. of Plasmas 1995.
- "High Poloidal Beta Long Pulse Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor",
J. Kesner, M. E. Mauel, G. A. Navratil, S. A. Sabbagh, M. Bell, R. Budny, C. Bush, E. Fredrickson, B. Grek, A. Janos, D. Johnson, D. Mansfield, D. McCune, K. McGuire, A. Ramsey, E. Synakowski, G. Taylor, M. Zarnstorff, S. H. Batha, F. M. Levinton, Physics of Fluids B, 1993.
- "A fluid description for the discharge equilibrium of a divergent ECR plasma source",
G. Guan, M. E. Mauel, W. M. Holber, and J. B. O. Caughman, Phys. of Fluids B, 1992.
- "High Poloidal Beta Equilibria in TFTR Limited by a Natural Inboard Poloidal Field Null",
S. A. Sabbagh, R. A. Gross, M. E. Mauel, G. A. Navratil, M. G. Bell, R. Bell, N. L. Bretz, C. E. Bush, M. S. Chance, P. C. Efthimion, E. D. Fredrickson, R. Hatcher, R. J. Hawryluk, A. C. Janos, S. C. Jardin, D. L. Jassby, J. Manickam, D. C. McCune, K. M. McGuire, S. S. Medley, D. Mueller, Y. Nagayama, D. K. Owens, M. Okabayshi, H. K. Park, A. T. Ramsey, B. C. Stratton, E. J. Synakowski, G. Taylor, R. M. Weiland, M. C. Zarnstorff, J. Kesner, E. S. Marmar, J. L. Terry, Phys. of Fluids B 1991.
- "Warm Electron-Driven Whistler Instability in an Electron-cyclotron-resonance Heated Mirror-confined Plasma",
R. C. Garner, M. E. Mauel, S. A. Hokin, R. S. Post, D. L. Smatlak, Physical Review Letters 1987.